Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Justification Definition and Examples in Typesetting In typesetting and printing, the process or result of spacing text so that the lines come out even at the margins. The lines of text on this page are left justifiedthat is, the text is lined up evenly on the left side of the page but not on the right (which is called ragged right). As a general rule, use left justification when preparing essays, reports, and research papers.See Examples and Observations below. Also see: Choosing a Style Manual and Documentation GuideIndentationStyle Guide Examples and Observations Research papers follow a standard presentation format. . . . Do not right-justify (align) your paper. The right margins should be ragged. Your computer will automatically justify your left margin.(Laurie Rozakis, Schaums Quick Guide to Writing Great Research Papers. McGraw-Hill, 2007)Manuscript Guidelines (Chicago Style)To avoid the appearance of inconsistent spacing between words and sentences, all text in a manuscript should be presented flush left (ragged right)that is, lines should not be justified to the right margin. To leave enough room for handwritten queries, margins of at least one inch should appear on all four sides of the hard copy.(The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. The University of Chicago Press, 2010)Full JustificationLeft-justified margins are generally easier to read than full-justified margins that can produce irregular spaces between words and unwanted blocks of text. However, because left-justified (ragged-right) margins look informal, full-justified text is more appropriate for publications aimed at a broad readership that expects a more formal, polished appearance. Further, full justification is often useful with multiple-column formats because the spaces between the columns (called alleys) need the definition that full justification provides.(Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu, The Business Writers Handbook, 7th ed. Macmillan, 2003) Justification on ResumesDo not set full justification on an ASCII resume. Instead left justify all lines so the right margin is ragged.(Pat Criscito, How to Write Better RÃ ©sumÃ ©s and Cover Letters. Barrons Educational Series, 2008) Pronunciation: jus-te-feh-KAY-shen
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Exploration and History of Banned Books A banned book is one that has been removed from the shelves of a library, bookstore, orÃ classroom because of its controversial content. In some cases, banned books of the past have been burned and/or refused publication. Possession of banned books has at times been regarded as an act of treason or heresy, which was punishable by death, torture, prison time, or other acts of retribution. A book may be challenged or banned on political, religious, sexual, or social grounds. We take the acts of banning or challenging a book as a serious matter because these are forms of censorshipstriking at the very core of our freedom to read. The History of Banned Books A book may be considered a banned book if the work has been banned in the past. We still discuss these books and the censorship surrounding them not only because it gives us insight into the time in which the book was banned, but it also gives us some perspective on books that are banned and challenged today.Many of the books that we consider rather tame today were once hotly debated works of literature. Then, of course, books that were once popular bestsellers are sometimes challenged or banned in classrooms or libraries because the cultural viewpoint and/or language that was accepted at the time of the books publication is no longer deemed appropriate to read. Time has a way of changing our perspective on literature. Why Discuss Banned Books? Of course, just because a book has been banned or challenged in some parts of the United States doesnt mean it has happened where you live. You may be one of the fortunate few who have never experienced banning. Thats why its so important for us to discuss the reality of banned books.Its important to know about the cases that are happening in other parts of the United States, and its important to be aware of the cases of book banning and censorship that are taking place around the world. Amnesty International directs attention to just a few writers from China, Eritrea, Iran, Myanmar, and Saudi Arabia, who have been persecuted for their writings.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Justice, Ethics and Law - critical evaluation of one of the three topics below - Essay Example They insist that the idea of all people possessing certain rights by virtue of their humanity, even in the absence of legislation, is baseless and only loose talk.2 The ambiguity regarding the credibility of human rights dates back to the 18th century shortly after US Declaration of Independence in 1776, and thirteen years ahead, the French declaration of Ã¢â¬Ëthe rights of manÃ¢â¬â¢. The US Declaration stated that every man is Ã¢â¬Ëendowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rightsÃ¢â¬â¢ while the French Declaration asserted Ã¢â¬Ëmen are born and remain free and equal in rightsÃ¢â¬â¢. Not long afterwards, Jeremy Bentham, in his writings between 1791 and 1792,3 differed with the concept of human rights and called for its dismissal. Bentham claimed that the idea of human rights was borrowed from the Americans and was not practical. Even today, there is still widespread disagreement on issues relating to human rights. Most critics maintain that human rights lack coherence, cogency and legitimacy while some still point out grey areas such as social and economic rights.4 Amartya Sen5 proposes several guidelines for the elements of a human rights theory that adequately address the issue of legitimacy of human rights. I will consider these six guidelines as conclusions to arguments which he bases on one or more premises explained under each subheading. The paper will analyse each of these conclusions and their supporting premises and critically assess their legitimacy and any alternative suggestions. Sen claims that human rights are primarily ethical demands rather than legal commands.6 He makes this conclusion based on two premises. First, even though human rights have often resulted in legislation, it is considered a further fact, as opposed to a characteristic of human rights. Second, Sen states that human rights are agreements on certain ethical affirmations and the
Saturday, February 1, 2020
The U.S. constitution - Essay Example However it is important to consider that any amendments to the constitution should not be made too rapidly. For this reason any amendments to the constitution must follow a two stage process. First congress must propose the changes and then must be approved by the state legislatures. With all of this in consideration there have been changes to the U.S. constitution and as such one must consider what the overall function or role of the federal government was in the past and as it stands today. The interpretation of what the original framers of the U.S. Federal government intended has been a subject of debate for many different groups. However the overall outline of the federal government is laid out by the U.S. constitution. Originally, the role of the federal government very closely resembled the government as it stands today however it lacked the significant changes that come through the adoption of amendments. According to The United States National Archives (2011) the first major group amendments to the US Constitution is the incorporation of the Bill of Rights. The next significant changes to the United States constitution and according to the National Archives (2011) came in a series of gradual amendments which highlighted 26 additions/modifications pertaining to a variety of subjects. Some examples include the 22nd amendment which put term limits on the presidency or the17th amendment which dictated that there will be two senators from each state elected by the people and each senator shall have one vote. The next issue that will be discussed is how the structures of the government (Federalism, Presidential system, etc.) existed in the past and compare that with the function today. According to the George Bush Presidential Library and Museum publication the current role of an American president/presidential system can be broken down into six roles (Chief of State, Chief Executive, Commander-In Chief, Chief Diplomat, Legislative Leader and Leader of His Po litical party). The interesting difference that can be drawn from these roles is that the original president (George Washington) had no political party. From this perspective this represents a fundamental difference between the original role of the President and the current role of the President. Moreover as the increasingly globalized economy the roles of the president as a chief diplomat would be greatly expanded insofar as this would require greater exposure to a larger number of nations. In the relationship of states with the Federal government there have been a number of significant changes such as the growth in the number of states (From the original thirteen to fifty). Moreover there has been an increasing interdependency between states facilitated through such additions as railways, federal highways, etc. The final issue that will be covered is the way in which the federal government guaranteed or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee civil rights and liberties then; and the way in which they guarantee or don't guarantee civil rights and liberties today. Probably the most significant mechanism that guarantees the rights of citizens would be the incorporation of the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution which ultimately became known as the Bill of rights. According to the United States National Archives (2011), the reasoning behind why this would be needed is largely owing to the fact that the original constitution did not lay out specifically what the
Friday, January 24, 2020
Point of View in Grendel and BeowulfÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Contrasting points of view in Grendel and Beowulf significantly alter the reader’s perception of religion, good and evil, and the character Grendel. John Gardner’s book, Grendel, is written in first person. The book translated by Burton Raffel, Beowulf, is written in third person. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Good and evil is one of the main conflicts in the poem Beowulf. How is Grendel affected by the concepts of good and evil? Grendel is an alienated individual who just wants to be a part of something. His desire to fit in causes him to do evil things. Grendel is fascinated by the Shaper’s poetry. He often returns to the mead hall to listen to it. One night while he is listening, he hears the story of Cain and Abel, including the Danes explanation of Grendel. His reaction to this leads to one of his most dramatic emotional reactions: “I believed him. Such was the power of the Shaper’s harp! Stood wriggling my face, letting tears down my nose, grinding my fists into my elbow the corpse of the proof that both of us ere cursed, or neither, that the brothers had never lived, nor the god who judged them. ‘Waaa!’ I bawled. ‘Oh what a conversion’';(Gardner 51)! Grendel then cries for mercy from the Danes. He wants their forgiveness as well as unification with them, which represents the good in him. The Danes reject him by confusing his outburst of sorrow as an attack. After visiting with a dragon who tells Grendel a fictional version of the Shaper’s tale, Grendel continues to believe the Shaper’s story. He searches for the goodness in human beings, which was mentioned in the story. He eats people only because it provides a place for him in society, even if it is a negative position (The Two Faces of Grendel, 2). Good and evil is one of the main conflicts in the poem Beowulf, and ultimately both wipe each other out. Good, is portrayed by God, and evil seems to be what fate has in store for the hero. Beowulf occasionally talks to God and asks God to give him strength before the battle and to give him the valor he needs to overcome his enemy. Evil seems to always get the bad side of things since it always gets conquered by God’s good side. Even tho... ... of the book Grendel allows the reader to see another side of Grendel. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Beowulf, Grendel is viewed as the antagonist and the evil villain. Grendel is both feared and hated in Beowulf. Upon reading Beowulf, the reader discovers Grendel as seen through the eyes of his terrified victims. King Hrothgar, leader of the Danes, fears his visits: “The renowned ruler, the prince of long famous, sat empty of joy; strong in might, he suffered, sorrowed for his men when they saw the track of the hateful monster, the evil spirit.'; Hrothgar would dread the fatal nights when Grendel would dine on human flesh. The ruler understands that Grendel attacks his men out of spite and jealousy (The Two Faces of Grendel, 1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In reading Grendel and Beowulf, one can find many similarities in the way the events occur in the books, however because of contrasting points of view, the reader gets insight on the entire picture from two different sides. This allows the reader to better understand each book and its contents, such as their beliefs and the concept of good and evil, and acknowledge the ways the character Grendel can be described.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Edward Said remains one of the best selling and well known of the social and literary theorists that deal with identity and nation in the post-colonial global setting. This field is saturated with work dealing with culture and identity formation, post-modern Ã¢â¬Å"epistemic communities,Ã¢â¬ and most importantly, the relationship between context (ethnic, religious or economic) relative to the formation of such communities. There can be no question that the reading of SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s book must take place within the context of the American neo-conservative drive to dominate the planet in the name of a vaporous Ã¢â¬Å"democracy,Ã¢â¬ or even Ã¢â¬Å"free markets. Ã¢â¬ And for this reason, it is important for the author to establish his view on the United States as a Ã¢â¬Å"conquerorÃ¢â¬ power primarily, as her early history can be reduced to the Ã¢â¬Å"settler mentality. Ã¢â¬ Transplants from the imperial center to the imperial hinterlands, for Said is basically the same as the slave societies functioning in the Carribean Islands, as his understanding of Austin shows. America is a slave power and a conquering power in that her development cannot be separated from the systematic pillaging of native traditions and lands. What makes America more interesting is her ability to absorb many traditions, and, from that, to create an identity in a rather counter-intuitive sort of way. Even further, the claim is that such an imperial power has the ability to create unity out of disunity; of creating an identity out of cacophony. Austria, Russia and the Ottomans are just three other examples of predatory powers creating unity out of disunity, or, even more strangely, creating the imperial idea precisely from the materials of disunity, both ethnic and religious. This kind of dialectic, i. e. identity from opposing elements, is central to SaidÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of identity formation in the context of domination and exploitation. The central argument here is that identity formation has been poorly treated in the historiographic tradition both of the west and of the post-colonial world. Authors have tended to target the functional, Ã¢â¬Å"staticÃ¢â¬ aspects of identity and culture, without understanding, as a whole, the nature of the social context. In other words, social and economic exploitation is as much a part of post-colonial identity as the more static elements of language. In his own ethnic identity, that of the Palestinian, Said can competently say that his own identity exists not in a vacuum, but as intrinsically part of the cultural formation deriving from Turkish, British and Jewish forms of colonial rule. Hence, there is no Ã¢â¬Å"Palestine,Ã¢â¬ as a cultural formula outside of the multi-ethnic scope of domination and violent colonialization. There is a culture, but it is a culture of Ã¢â¬Å"resistance,Ã¢â¬ a culture whose very formation exists in a matrix of humiliation. Hence, Said creates a dialectic of his own, following the more common Hegelian logical notion of the conclusion being manufactured though opposition. Identity, as a thesis, is a dialogue deriving from resistance to power. But even more, the antithesis, this identity formation derives at least in part from the Ã¢â¬Å"literaryÃ¢â¬ (speaking broadly) production of the post-colonial center. In other words, after the experience of colonialism, the former metropole continues to dominate the subject peoples from the point of view of literature itself, in fact, a form of identity formation often overlooked in the historical literature. Lastly, as a synthesis, Said holds that a post colonial idea of identity of a formerly subject people is a creation whose final end is indeterminate, and even in general strokes, is vulnerable to critique. The synthesis here is itself an extremely pessimistic concept of identity that leaves the formerly dominated to be forever controlled by the mass-language modes of communication. Communication itself is a form of political power and colonial domination. It is a common idea, driving in modern times from Benedict Anderson and Eric Hobsbawm, that the Ã¢â¬Å"nationÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ethnosÃ¢â¬ is a contrived entity. This does not negate its use as a variable in analysis, but it does show some light on the nature of Ã¢â¬Å"traditionÃ¢â¬ considered very broadly. In short, Anderson has famously made the argument that the ethnos is a Ã¢â¬Å"imagined communityÃ¢â¬ where the individual envisions himself part of a heritage and a history he had no part in making, and cannot ever hope to Ã¢â¬Å"experienceÃ¢â¬ as a single entity. It is a series of mental images rather than as a set of incontrovertible facts. Hobsbawm, for his part, holds that the ethnos or nation is the synthetic creation not merely of a series of images, but that these images are the direct creation of elites who have a specific interest in development a sense of Ã¢â¬Å"unityÃ¢â¬ among a formerly disunified people. Mass media, standardized language and an industrial economy are all necessary for such basic cultural standardization to take place. Hence, the idea of a nation, while still useful to the social sciences, remains an entity without actual substance; a monstrous creation rather than a natural growth (cf. 15-18). Said holds to these views, but of course, provides the reader with the more general and inclusive category of international exploitation. While this is a broad category, it remains concrete, since, given the identity of any specific ethnic group, close analysis of its history shows not a Ã¢â¬Å"developmentÃ¢â¬ of an ethnic Ã¢â¬Å"idea,Ã¢â¬ but rather a life of domination, exploitation and manipulation that has forced a hasty and uncritical sense of self that is itself a distortion and the worst form of image manipulation. It is Ã¢â¬Å"unnaturalÃ¢â¬ to the extreme, and hence the global context is highly alienated, since the bulk of the human population subscribe (passively, to be sure) to a sense of self that is a mere reaction of the ethnic immune system (210).
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The definition of antisemitism means prejudice against or hatred of Jews. In 1933 the Nazis rose to power and the party ordered anti-Jewish boycotts, destruction of Jewish property, and created many laws to prevent Jewish German citizens from doing certain things. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws were created and they decided to separate the Aryans and the Ã¢â¬Å"non-Aryans,Ã¢â¬ which led to a Ã¢â¬Å"racist hierarchyÃ¢â¬ in Germany. While this was happening, many Germans tolerated the hate crimes and did nothing to stop the discrimination. People tolerate the acts of prejudice and discrimination they see happening around them because they do not want to get involved or cause and problems. Prejudice refers to beliefs, thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that a person has towards a certain group. Prejudice is not always based on previous relations, it is usually based on prejudgment. Usually people think of prejudice in terms of race, culture, or religion. However, prejudice has a diffe rent meaning than the dislike of people with different races or a religion. Prejudice describes a pre-judgment, which can also be explained as judging a person or culture before knowing anything about them or their culture. Usually it is a judgment made with very little knowledge about the person or religion and many people make this judgment in ignorance. People will tolerate acts of produce because they do not understand the other individual(s) on a personal level and they jump to conclusions. People do not wantShow MoreRelatedRacism, Discrimination, And Prejudice1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRacism, discrimination, and prejudice. When most people in America see those words, their first thought is our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s past relationship with slavery. According to Cunion, slavery is Ã¢â¬Å"the institution of human bondage, in which individuals are held against their will in the service of another.Ã¢â¬ In the movie 12 Years a Slave, we see the unforgiving truths about everything that came along with slavery. Living in Saratoga, New York, 1841, along with his wife and two kids, Solomon Northup is a freeRead MoreDiscrimination, Prejudice And Racism2161 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Diversity is a very valuable component within establishments like corporations and academic institutions such as colleges, universities, or graduate schools. This diversity aspect within our society has been over shadowed by discrimination, prejudice and racism. Centuries ago the world knew the idea of elitism. We as a human race had divided ourselves into groups for what was believed to be the greater purpose of the divine resolve or even that of a social Darwinism like policy that madeRead MoreRacism, Prejudice, And Discrimination1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The movie we watched to see ageism was Up. The definition of ageism, from Meriam Webster, is prejudice or discrimination against a particular age-group, especially the elderly. In my opinion, we can also see it against young people. We can see when a job is hiring, they might not hire someone because they are too young, and they might think they are unprofessional. We can also see ageism in the Bible. Proverbs 23:22 says, Ã¢â¬Å"Listen to your father who begot you, and do not despise your mother whenRead MoreRacism : Racial Discrimination And Prejudice1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Racism has become about only blacks and whites like those are the only races. I am also a Hispanic female, and I disagree that African-Americans and Americans should be the only ones in the media every time something happens. The quotes from the film were blasted all over the Internet. What about things happening with other races? We never think about major things like this. People act like racism only happens within these two races. We have other minorities and races, so should it be okay for everyoneRead More Racism, Prejudice, and Discrimination in the Workplace Essay483 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesRacism, Prejudice, and Discrimination in the Workplace The workplace, including its composition and internal organization, is subjected to extensive regulation by the state. The civil society and its voluntary associations, have in fact, an important function with regards to workplace matters. In particular, they serve as a buffer against the state and an autonomous domain. Without them, differences and individual voices can eventually challenge the prevailing political order. ButRead MoreThe Oxford Dictionary Defines Racism As Ã¢â¬Å"Prejudice, Discrimination,1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOxford Dictionary defines racism as Ã¢â¬Å"Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one s own race is superior.Ã¢â¬ If further defines the same as Ã¢â¬Å"The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.Ã¢â¬ (Oxford Diction aries | English, 2017).There are different types of racism based on religion, nationalityRead MoreRacism, Prejudice, Or Discrimination Against Someone Else Of A Different Race Or Religion?1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRacism is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"Prejudice, or discrimination against someone else of a different race or religion.Ã¢â¬ (Dictionary.com) The way literature approaches racism is by the way they display the characters within the story. Since the author wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get through to people if they just simply say that a person was racist, they use characters such as Tom Robinson from To Kill a Mocking Bird. Or from a modern point of view, racism isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always up front to someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s face it can also be from social media, becauseRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird vs a Raisin in the Sun1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis a novel about how prejudice and discrimination can lead to an innocent man being convicted of a crime he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t commit just because of his skin color. A Ra isin in the Sun is a play about how the value of a family can overcome racism in a new town and allow a family to prosper, even in the worst conditions. However, both of these works deal with racism and discrimination in similar ways. Conversely, Harper Lee, being a white author, cannot portray believable accounts of racism and black oppressionRead MoreThe American Dream : An Unfortunate Nightmare1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNightmare Institutionalized racism: the big elephant in the room. By definition, institutionalized racism is Ã¢â¬Å"Any action, intentional or unintentional, that is based on race or skin color and that subordinates an individual or group based on skin color or race is racismÃ¢â¬ says professor Vernellia R. Randall( cite). Institutionalized racism exist in ever facet of our society. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re many cases where a decision was made based on someones race. For example: discrimination in the housing market. EspeciallyRead MoreThe Psychology Behind Prejudice : Humans Attitude1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Psychology behind Prejudice: HumansÃ¢â¬â¢ Attitude Jacinda Knudtson Antelope Valley College Abstract Prejudice is an opinion in which is not based on any reasoning, and may cause harm. Prejudice can be seen just about anywhere, and it affects our daily lives. There are many different ways a person can show prejudice beliefs, but why do they believe things they have never experience? Some may say itÃ¢â¬â¢s something personal with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self that causes prejudice thoughts, or some may think